Sapropels are the typical lays of fresh water reservoirs. They are valuable natural products resource of organic substance which consists of the remains of aquatic organisms and their decomposition products: algae, animals and higher plants. According to their properties sapropels are close to peat. Their similarity is in their organogenesis, presence of organisms remains which were not been completely mineralized, in great amount of organic substance, in conditions of formation.

Sapropel in natural state
Water free sapropel
Soil mixture on sapropel basis

Different conditions of sediments formation greatly define their composition. Depending in the condition of sapropel ash content and chemical composition of mineral part we distinguish organic, silica, carbonate, and mixed type of sapropel. Depending on condition of natural occurrence of sapropel (in lakes, under peat), its chemical properties, range of its chemical state – from liquid, soft, fluid (low-ash deposits) to soft and semi rigid structure (silica, and carbonate), great variety of sizes and spaces of stratification, thickness of the deposits it demands different technologies of extraction, transporting and primary processing.

One of the positive properties of sapropel is a composition of organic substance, which is represented by carbons of different complexity, nitrogen compounds, substances of protein like and humus kind, fatty acids and bituminous products.
The content of organic substance in sapropels of different types varies greatly: from 15 to 94% in terms of dry substance. Its composition is rather different and depends on original material and conditions of sediments accumulation. The main fractions of organic substances of sapropel are humic and low hydrolyzed substances, which are the greater half of organic substance and are inactive geochemically heavy hydrolyzed compounds.

The content of humic acids in sapropel varies greatly from 6,7 to 71,2% in terms of organic substance. Humic acids are the greater part of them. Sapropels are distinguished by rather low content of bitumens, only in some of them there are 6,0 – 8,4 % of them in terms of organic substance. Humic sapropel acids are compounds with great part of aliphatic fragments, low level of benzoic. Periphery aliphatic structures have both hydrolyzed (amino acids and carbons) and non-hydrolyzed compounds which are made of straight or branching carbon chains.

It has been investigated that the main difference of sapropel humic acids from the soil is in the fact that they have assimilable nitrogen (60-80%) and have three times less biochemically stable fractions. Besides the fractions are renewed and according to the existing mutual connection between biologic action of humic acids and their acid renewable state more renewed has more effective simulative impact on the photosynthesis of plants.

The main difference of sapropel humic acids from humic acids of peat is as follows: the main part of their molecules (more than 90%) is a hydrolyzed carbon –polypeptide complex connected with fatty compounds at small amount of aromatic structural units. The difference in composition of humic acids of sapropel and peat is explained by particular structure of original sapropel material (phyto and zooplankton), which has little lignin and a lot of pyrrole structures and also by slow underwater humification because of little amount of oxygen, and weak microbiological activity.


"Sapropel fertilizers" are ecologically pure organic fertilizers from sapropel, which have a complex of macro and microelements, biologically active components (vitamins, carotenoids, ferments, hormone-like substances), which provide increase of crop-species, improving of production quality and activation of growth, and development of ornamental plants.

Such product is produced by our company TP U 24.1-32366052-001:2005 .

The main quailitives: 
  • increase the number of nutritious elements and help to prolonged transportation to the plant;
  • stabilize the humus content in the soil;
  • improve the soil structure; 
  • increase a temperature, as a result soil becomes darker and this makes better the sun energy absorbing. This fact is very important for regions with cold and temperate climate; 
  • combine heavy metals and radionuclides in insoluble slow-moving complexes.
  • help increasing of useful microflora number in a soil; 
  • increase the crop yield;
  • improve the production quality.


The main biohumus components